CHAPTER I RATIONALE IMAM schools
During the Abbasid dynasty in 750 – 1258 M appears schools – schools of fiqh are among four priests of the famous schools of Kufa is Imam Hanafi, Maliki imam of madina, Imam Shafi’i from Gaza, and Hanbali Imam of Baghdad.
They are of the greatest scholars of fiqh and unparalleled in the world with well-known books are highly contribute in the development of the science of fiqh al-Akbar fiqhul bouquet Imam Abu Hanifa, the book Al-Muwatta ‘Imam Malik essays, book essays Imam al-umm Kitab Al-Shafi’i and Imam Hanbali kharraj essay. In this period also has been Constructing Science Ulama Fiqh jurisprudence is the science of the rules – the rules of Islamic law in the decision. Ar-Risala Shafi’i Writing a book of Usul Fiqh is the first.
B. HISTORY emergence of schools
1. Understanding schools
According to the English “school” comes from shighah mashdar Mimy (adjective) and isim eat (words that show places) taken from ficil Madhi “dzahaba” which means “go”. Meanwhile, according to T. Huzaemah Yanggo could also mean al-ra’yu which means “opinion”.
While the terminological sense Huzaemah schools by T. Yanggo, is the main idea or the basis used by the priest Mujtahid in solving the problem, or Islamic law mengistinbatkan. Furthermore, Imam School, and that school evolved into the notion of Muslims who follow the way istinbath certain Mujtahid Imam Imam Mujtahid or following opinion on the issue of Islamic law.
So it can be concluded that the school in question include two terms
a. School is a way of thinking or method pursued a Mujtahid Imam in establishing the law of an event based on the Qur’an and hadith.
b. School is a fatwa or opinion of a Mujtahid Imam of the law is an event taken from the Qur’an and hadith.
2. A Brief History of emergence of schools of Fiqh
Actually there has been deviation in the companions, this is due to differences in understanding between them and the difference nash (sunnah) are up to them, but it is also because of their knowledge in hadith is not the same problem as well as differing views on the basis of law and different places. As we know, that when Islam has spread to various parts expanded, many Companions of the Prophet who had moved away and scatter into the new country of residence. Thus, the opportunity to exchange ideas or deliberation difficult problem to solve something done. In line with the above opinion, Qasim Abdul Aziz Khomis explained that the factors that cause deviation among three companions namely: 1. The difference of the friends in understanding the texts of the Qur’an 2. The difference due to different history of the companions 3. The difference is caused by the companions ra’yu.
After the expiration of the companions who continued with the Tabi’in, Tabi’in tabi’it generation emerges. Ijtihad of the Sahaba and Tabi’in be role models by future generations in the various regions and areas of Islamic rule at that time. The third generation is known as tabi’it Tabi’in. Explained that in the history of this period begins when entering the second century of Hijra, where the Islamic government held by the Abbasid Daula.
Daula Abbasid period was the golden age of Islam, or often referred to as” The Golden Age”. At that time Muslims have reached the pinnacle of glory, whether in economics, culture and power. It also has developed various branches of science, coupled with a number of translations of books from foreign languages into Arabic. This phenomenon gave birth later that the scholar-intellectuals that produce a variety of new innovations in the various disciplines of science. Bani Abbas inherited a great empire of the Umayyads.
This allows them to achieve more results, because the foundations had been prepared by the great Umayyad Daula. This period in the history of Islamic law is also regarded as a period of the glories of Islamic fiqh, in which was born a few schools of jurisprudence that banner carried by figures who contributed to integrating supreme jurisprudence Islamic jurisprudence and left remarkable treasures that became the bedrock for any fiqh scholars to right now.
Actually, this period is the continuation of the previous period, because the ideas represented in the schools of fiqh and hadith expert ra’yu expert is causing schools of fiqh, and the schools that apply these ideas operational. When entering the second Hijri century is the era of the birth of schools of law, and two centuries later schools of law has been institutionalized in the Islamic community with the patterns and characteristics in doing istinbat law.
Birth of schools of law with its own characteristic pattern and this inevitably raises many differences of opinion and diversity of legal products produced. The sect leaders or imams like Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik, Imam Shafi’i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and others, each offering a framework methodology, theory and principles of ijtihad which became law in establishing their foothold. Methodology, theory and principles formulated by the leaders and the Imams School was, at first only intended to give way and a step-by-step or attempt to solve a variety of legal issues faced by both in understanding the texts of al-Quran and al-Hadith and the legal cases that are not found within the texts.
Methodology, theory and principles formulated by the priests of the school continues to grow and is followed by the next generation and he-unwittingly-transformed into a doctrine (fad) to explore the legal source. With increasingly mengakarnya and institutionalization of legal thought in which the doctrine of each other there is a difference is typical, then later he appeared as a stream or a school that eventually became the foundation by their respective followers in doing istinbat law school.
The theories that have been formulated by thinking of each of the school is something that is very important, because it involves the creation of working patterns and a systematic methodology framework in doing business istinbat law. Creation of working patterns and frameworks such methodology is the Islamic legal thought called usul fiqh.
Until now Fiqh deviation continues, they remain at loggerheads on the issue furu’iyyah, as a result of the diversity of sources and flows in understanding legal texts and mengistinbatkan no nashnya. The dispute took place between the parties to expand and narrow, between tightening and easing, among which tend to be rational and that tends to stick to the enacting of the texts, among which requires schools and against it.
According to the authors, the differences of opinion among this people, up from anywhere and at any place will continue, and it demonstrates the dynamism of Muslims, because the human mindset continues to grow. Dissent is then spawned schools of Islam that still hold people until now. Each school has a grip points which eventually led to different views and different opinions, and among them their views on the position of al-Quran and al-Sunnah.
C. Schools of Thought BASICS AND CAUSES OF FOUR DIFFERENT
1. Fundamentals of the Four Schools of Thought
The development of the two streams and tradisinalisme ijtihad rationalism has spawned Islamic jurisprudence schools in Islam which have methodological study of law and fatwas fiqh itself, and has followers from various laposan society. In the history of the study of Islamic law known some schools of jurisprudence that is generally divided into two schools of Sunni and schools syi’i. Among Sunnis, there are several schools of thought, namely Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi’i and Hanbali. While among the Shia, there are two schools of jurisprudence, namely Zaidiyah and Ja’fariah. But that is still evolving today is Ja’fariah and Shia Imami madhhab.
In this paper, the authors simply limiting the schools of fiqh of Sunni groups. Here we mention the history of the school of fuqoha fuqoha-recorded and they had followers in many major countries.
a. Imam Abu Hanifah (80-150 AH)
His full name is Nu’man ibn Thabit ibn Zuthi (80-150 H). He was born in Kufa, the Umayyad dynasty precisely at the time of Abdul Malik ibn Marwan power.
When his youth he studied fiqh of Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman, he also learned a lot on tabi’in scholars like Atha ‘ibn Abi Rabah and Nafi’ Maula Ibn Umar. At first Abu Hanifa was a merchant, at the instigation of al-Syabi he became the developer of science. Abu Hanifa learned scholars of fiqh to flow iraq (ra’yu). Imam Abu Hanifah invite to freedom of thought in solving new problems that have not been found in the al-Quran and al-Sunnah. He relied on qiyas (analogy) in determining the law.
Imam Abu Hanifah widely known as a scholar who had also adds knowledge and experience in politics, because in his lifetime he had a situation the transfer of power from the Umayyad Caliphs to Abbasid caliphate, which would change the situation very differently antarta second period.
Hanafis developed for the persistence of his students spread into the wider community, but sometimes there is an opinion that goes against the student teacher, then that’s the one characteristic that sometimes include jurisprudence Hanafiyah teacher rebuttal against fiqh scholars who lived in his time.
Cleric Hanafiyah compiled books of fiqh, such as Jami ‘al-Fushulai, Dlarar al-Hukkam, books and qawaid al-Fiqh al-Fiqh, and others. Basics Hanafis are:
a. Karim Al-Qur’anul
b. Rosu and Sunnah are authentic atsar more famous
c. Fatwa friend
f. Indigenous and community uruf
Finally, Abu Hanifa died in Rejab 150H/767M while in jail due to inedible food that poisoned people. In another narration that free he was beaten to death in prison. Mortality figures dirasai by Islamic scholars of the Islamic world. Body prayers held 6 times, each founded by nearly 50,000 worshipers. Abu Hanifah has several students who allow their persona teachings passed on to the public. Among children of Abu Hanifa an accomplished student is Zufar (158H/775M), Abu Yusuf (182H/798M) and Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Syaibani (189H/805M)
b. Imam Malik (93-179 H)
He is the son of Annas Maliki bin Abu Amir. He was born in the year 93 AH madinah He was studying in Madinah scholars. The first person to be a place of learning is Abdur Rahman bin Hurmuz. He is also the study on Nafi ‘Maula Ibn Umar and Ibn Shihab az-Zuhri. The teachers in fiqh is Abdur Rahman bin Rabi’a.
Was his famous book al-Muwatta ‘, a book of hadith fiqh style. This is the oldest book of hadith and fiqh oldest we meet. He was a priest in the science of hadith and fiqh as well. People have agreed on the primacy and leadership in these two sciences.
In a fatwa ruling it rests on the Book of Allah and then on as-Sunnah. But his deeds precede the medina of the ahad hadith in is because he is opinionated in the medina was inherited from a friend. After as-Sunnah, Qiyas Malik back. One thing no doubt that these issues be developed on the basis of mashlahah mursalah.
Elementary schools Maliki in determining the law are:
3. Ijma ‘expert madinah
5. Istishab / al-Mashalih al-mursalah
Malik never punished by gabenor Medina in 147H/764M kerana has issued a fatwa that free cuba divorce laws implemented by the Abbasid empire as invalid. Abbasid kingdom when it has made its own fatwa that free all residents need to be obedient to the leader and the one who will reluctantly dropped the divorce to his wife! Perceived that people are more taatkan scholars’ rather than leaders, Abbasid government has forced Malik to validate their positions. Malik reluctant even issued a fatwa stating that free divorce such invalid (not falling talaknya). Malik was arrested and beaten by gabenor Medina that his shoulder was broken and expelled than the original position. This injury is very severe sehinggakan bersolat he is no longer able to hold his hands in the chest, then left his body on the edge of our other features.
Malik later released and he returned to teach at Medina until well he died on 11 Rabi ‘al-Awal 179H/796M year. Among his children were famous pupil was’ Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Qasim al-tasyri (191H/807M), Ibn Wahhab, Abu Muhammad al-Masri (199H/815M) and Yahya ibn Yahya al-Masmudi (234H / 849M).
c. Imam As-Shafi’i (150-204 H)
He is the son of Imam Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Uthman ibn Abbas Shafi ‘as-Shafi’i al-Muthalibi. He was born in the year 150 H Ghazzah Asqalan.beliau memorized the Qur’an in the area at the age of childhood. Then he went to Hudzail to memorize syai’r-syai’r and studying literature. Later he studied at the Muslim bin Khalid az-Zanji a land Mufti sheikh and Haram, after learning she had asked to be made to him a letter of introduction to Malik ibn Anas Hijrah imam soil (Medina), then he made a letter to Malik Hadith expert.
Shafi’i jurisprudence had studied science and its rules of law in al-Haram mosque of the two major mufti, ie Muslim bin Khalid and Sufyan ibn Umayya to mature in the science of fiqh. As-Shafi’i began to study law and issue fatwas fiqh even arrange legal analysis methodology that tends to reinforce the position of traditional and rational criticizing, good flow and Kuffah Medina. In the context of fiqihnya Shafi’i suggests the idea that Islamic law derived from the Qur’an and al-Sunnah, and Ijma ‘and if all three provisions of the law have not explained clearly, he learned the words and new friends who last did qiyas and istishab.
-Shafi’i schools of jurisprudence as a mix between the Hanafi and Maliki schools. It consists of two opinions, namely qaul qadim (old opinion) qaul jadid in Iraq and in Egypt. Shafi’i madhhab schools known as the most careful in determining the law.
Among the pen / the works of Imam Shafi’i, namely:
– Ar-Risala: a book of fiqh usul were first conceived.
– Al-Umm: it was about the various issues of jurisprudence based on main ideas contained in the books of usul fiqh.
d. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (164-241 AH)
He is the son of Hilal Ahmad ibn Hanbal ash-adh-Dzahili Maruzi Syaibani al-Baghdadi, was born in 164 H in Baghdad. He heard the hadith authorities dai Hashim, Al-Bukhari, Muslim, and the same level, narrated from him. He traditions and memorize search multiply to become scholars of hadith in his time. Ash-Shafi’i said: I left Baghdad and I did not leave the people there are more mainstream, more and more intelligent jurisprudent than Ahmad ibn Hanbal. He studied at the Ash-Shafi’i fiqh when he comes in Baghdad, passage and he is a famous disciple of the people of Baghdad, then he ijtihad for himself. He belonged to the practice mujtahid scholars of hadith ahad hadith saheeh isnaad unconditionally for as the ash-Shafi’i and his companions prioritize the opinions of the Qiyas. Entering rijalul Ahmad in Hadith is more powerful than putting it in the fuqaha. He compiled Musnad hadith containing 40,000 more. His son named Abdullah narrated from him. In the field of jurisprudence he has Tha’atur book Apostles, and Mansukh Nasikh book, and the book Ilal.
Some famous people is Abu Bakr narrated madzhabnya Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hani ‘is famous for its Atsram who authored the book As-Sunnan fil Fiqh’ ala madzhabi Ahmad (Sunnah-sunnah about schools of fiqh by Ahmad) da he had a testimony of the hadith, Ahmad bin Muhammad ibn al-Marwazi Hajaj authored the book As-Sunnan bi Syawahidil Hadith (Sunnah-sunnah to witness traditions). And Isaac the son of Abraham Ibn Rahawaih premises famous Al-Marwazi and including friends too big to fabricate Ahmad As-fil Sunnan fiqh (Sunnah-sunnah of fiqh).
Ahmad ibn Hanbal was the one who hit the famous exams kemakhlukkan about the Koran. Many scholars of hadith which grant solicitation Al-Ma’mun al-Qur’an to say that the creature. As he (Ahmad) stand steadfast, sturdy and does not wobble at all since the beginning of the year 218 H, namely Al-Ma’mun invitation until the year 233 H, namely the cancellation of Al-Mutawakil the invitation, which allow people to be independent in terms of the selected and trusts. Constancy is without talking about right or wrong makes Ahmad ibn Hanbal was noble and was in a high degree before the scholars as to bear the painful things in order to maintain trust in which it is beautiful-beautiful ornaments of glory human subject. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal died in Baghdad on the 12th of Rabi al Awwal 241 H. Sepeninggalan him, Hanbali schools flourished and became one of the many schools of followers.
2. Causes His form Opinion distinction between the Imam School
One soalan a somewhat surprising: Why is a form of dissent among priests schools? We all already know that free schools to all the priests basing their opinion to the arguments of al-Quran and al-Sunnah, is precisely why the form of a difference?
Actually dissent among priests is not anything great school as we sangkakan. Distinction they are nothing but the small matters and branches instead of principles and proposals sepertimana described by ‘Abd al-Rahman I.
If someone is really watching the teachings of his four schools of fiqh of Islam, he will not see any distinction or distinction opinion in the context of teaching the principles of Islamic principles themselves. Distinction which form only about the matters furu ‘(branches) rather than matters suggestion (principle of) Islam.
Distinction furu ‘and not the proposal as stated above is likened by Abu al-Fath Bayanuni as:
One type of fruit from a tree the principal; instead of different kinds of fruit trees originating from different subjects. The trunk which one is the Book of Allah and the Sunnah while the branches are the arguments of Personality ‘and the way of thinking diversified; subordinates when results are too many fiqh law and in variety.
In general, this distinction arises kerana two reasons namely:
a. The humanitarian. Humans were created with different skill, as there are fizikal or mentally. Mental differences as differences rather diertikan someone interprets something theorem al-Quran and al-Sunnah to issue a law. This only applies to the general proposition that allows differing understanding.
b. Historical factors. In the days of the school of priests, there is no atmosphere to enable them to obtained the traditions or sitting together talking about something religious. The priests were forced to emigrate to school here and there throughout the Islamic world to seek hadith the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam. Atmosphere is no legal relationship with the hooks issued by one priest that school where each than they would issue an opinion based on the traditions they had received it.
From the explanations above, the school of thought of Imam author can draw some conclusions as follows:
a. School is a way of thinking or method pursued a Mujtahid Imam in establishing the law of an event based on the Qur’an and hadith.
b. There are four schools of figh imams Imam Abu Hanifah (80-150 AH), Imam Malik (93-179 AH), Imam As-Shafi’i (150-204 H), and Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (164-241 AH)
c. Because the difference between the sect influenced by two factors: human factors and historical factors
2. Advice and final word
The author realizes that in this paper have the shortage, we ask for your comments and suggestions for the achievement of written works better
The priests were the four schools of Islamic jurisprudence do not ever have to break-purpose belahkan Muslims. They are just trying to convey the teachings of the religion of Islam easy reach of obedience to Allah and His Messenger.
However, the various factors, the school has become a tool for some people membahagikan each tribe with tribe rejoice with what is on it. Erties rejoice in favor of the school said the school itself and degrading others. Included in this pengunggulan action is banning Muslims from other sects reviewing, banning prayer in congregation behind the imam or with other schools and move schools. All of this is an act that resembles the non-Islamic deeds and Allah Almighty forbids us rather than follow them:
And do not be a ubiquitous class of idolaters. Namely the people who make their religion fahaman berselisihan tendency to follow each other and they also become berpuak-tribe; each tribe rejoiced in what was to him. [Al-Rum 30: 31-32].
Today, we can note that since Christianity centuries old terbahagi to several schools such as Roman Catholic, Protestant, Anglican and Orthodox initially strive toward unity by closing any distinction between them. Various seminars, meetings and hearings are encouraged to seek a more complete unity among them and was later translated to the same time there are practical actions in terms of religious or worldly. More tercatitnya is presented to a new page between the followers of Christianity and Judaism which has been known hostile, now appear united in various worldly affairs.
On the contrary, we see Muslims still insist pembahagian schools of fiqh, respectively. Our time has come Muslims be aware of this fact and began to think in a broad scope. Our time has come to see Islam as a global religion and Muslims as people who do not think in the corners of the continent where we are. Islam is not a religion persendirian follow the school and we are not in menganutinya berseorang. Islam is the religion of the congregation and we are experts in the congregation. The future lies in the hands of the entire Muslim worshipers and pilgrims Nor can anything move but every expert work and move in the same direction and purpose.
The presence of schools of Islamic fiqh since from past, present, and future is only a medium that allows us to be a believer who obey Allah and His Messenger. Make that school as a means of delivering us to this noble cause, not a stonewall to something otherwise.